vency's site

 
THE  MOST  RELEVANT 
INVENTIONS, DISCOVERIES, ACHIEVEMENTS
Sources:The World Almanac 1996, World Almanac Books, Funk & Wagnalls Corp.
 The New York Public Library Science Desk Reference, 1995, Macmillan, USA
The Handy Science Answer Book, 1994, The Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh
Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology, Ed. C. Morris,1992, Acad. Press, NY & London
                                                Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th edition,  Ed. S.P. Parker, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1989
IDA
 YEAR
AUTHOR
COUNTRY
Abacus ~ 500 BC na Egiptian
Absolute temperature 1848 Kelvin English
acetylene 1862 Berthelot French
ACTH 1927 Evans& Long US
adding machine 1642 Pascal French
adrenaline 1901 Takamine Japanese
aerosol spray 1926 Rotheim Norwegian
air-bag 1953 Hetric US
air-born observatory 1982 NASA US
air conditioning 1911 Carrier US
air plane first flight 1903 Wright US
alarm  clock 1787 Hutchins US
algebra ~500 na Indian
algebra/integral calculus 1767 Euler Swiss
alphabeth 22-letter ~1 350 na
alphabet lett. in math.equat. 1591 Vieta French
aluminium electrol.process 1886 Hall US
aluminum  isolated 1825 Oersted Danish
America is a ‘new world’ 1502 Vespucci Italian
America first map 1507 Waldseemuller German
anemometer 1709 Wolfius German?
automatic pilot [airplane] 1912 Sperry US
air composition 1778 Lavoisier French
air flight 1st 1783 Montgolfier French
airplane jet engine 1939 Ohain German
airplane with motor 1903 Wright bros US
alternator elctr. 1878 Gramme & Fontain French
analytic geometry 1619 Descartes French
anatomy modern founding 1543 Vesalius Belgian
anatomy pathological 1761 Morgagni Italian
anestesia by ether 1842 Long US
anestesia local 1885 Koller Austrian
anestesia spinal 1898 Bbier German
aniline dye 1856 Perkin English
anti-rabies 1885 Pasteur French
antiseptic surgery 1867 Lister English
antitoxin diphteria 1891 Vob Behring German
aqueduct (city) ~ 700 na Assyrian
arc welder 1919 Thomson US
argyrol 1897 Basyer German
arsphenamine 1910 Ehrlich German
artificial radiactive 1st element Curie French
aspartame 1965 Schiatter US
aspirin 1889 Dresseret al. German
assembly line 1908 Ford US
asteroid Ceres obs. 1801 Piazzi Italian
astronomical observations 1609-11 Galileo Italian
atomic bomb 1945 Oppenheimer et al. US
atomic clock 1948 Libby US
atomic number 1913 Moseley English
atomic theory 1803 Dalton English
atomic theory 1911 Rutherford English
atoms smashing theory 1919 Rutherford English
automatic transmission engine 1910 Fottinger German
automobile electric 1892 Morrison US
automobile gasoline 1885 Benz German
Avogadro law of gases 1811 Avogadro Italian
baby born from frozen embrio 1985 na Australian
bacitracin 1945 Johnsonet al. US
bacteria 1676 Leeuwenhoek Duch
bacteriophages disc. 1915 Twort English
bacterium 1st cultivated in lab. 1876 Koch German
bakelite 1907 Baekeland Belgian
ballistic science 1537 Tartaglia Italian
balloon 1783 Montgolfier French
barcode system 1970 Marking US
barbital 1903 Fischer German
barometer 1643 Torricelli Italian
BASIC language 1965 Kurtz & Kemeny US
bicycle 1885 Starley English
bifocal lens 1780 Franklin US
bigbang theory 1948 Gamow et al. Rus.-US
bigbang remnants 1965 Penzias Germ.-US
bio-pesticide employed 1st 304 na Chinese
biosensors 1983 CambridgeLife Sci. English
black holes postulation 1916 Schwarzschild German
bleaching powder 1798 Tennant English
blood circulation described 1628 Hervey English
blood pressure meas. device 1881 Von Bash Austrian
bordeaux mixture 1885 Millardet French
braille printing 1829 Braille French
bridge [stone] ~100BC na  Roman
bridge, long-span suspension  1883 Roebling Greman-US
bromine extr. from sea 1924 Edgar Kramer US
brownian motion of particles 1827 Brown English
burner gas 1855 Bunsen German
cesarean 1st operation  1500 Nufer Swiss
calculating machine[+-] 1642 Pascal French
calculating machine[+-x/] 1671 Leibnitz German
calculating differential machine 1833 Babbage English
calculator pocket electronic 1972 VanTassel US
calculus 1670 Newton English
calculus differ. & Integr. 1675 Leibniz German
camera photo 1888 Eastman US
camphor synthetic 1896 Haller French
canning foods 1804 Appert French
capillary action description 1490 Leonardo Italian
carbomycin 1952 Tanner US
carbon fiber 1964 [RAF] English
carburetor 1893 Maybach German
card time recorder 1894 Cooper US
carding machine 1797 Whittemore US
cash register 1879 Ritty US
cassette audio 1963 Philips Co. Duch
cassette videotape 1969 Sony Japanese
catapult ~ 400 Dionysus of Syracuse M. Grek
catode ray tube 1878 Crookes English
CD-ROM 1984 na [Hitachi] Japanese
cell identified 1665 Hooke English
cell theory 1838 Schleiden/Schwann German
cellophane 1908 Brandenberger Swiss
celluloid 1870 Hyatt US
cement portland 1824 Aspdin English
centigrade scale 1742 Celsius Swedish
channell-tunnel 1994 na Eng-French
chloramphenicol 1947 Burkholder US
chlorine 1774 Scheele Swedish
chloroform 1831 Guthrie US
chlortetracycline 1948 Duggen US
cholera bacterium discovered 1883 Koch German
chromosomes & mitosis 1882 Flemming German
chronometer 1761 Harrison English
circle of 360° introduced ~ 180BC Hypsicles Greek
circuit breker 1925 Hilliard US
circuit integrated 1959 Kilby et al. Texas Instr. US
classification animals & plants 1735 Linnaeus Swedish
clock mechanical 1360 De Vick German
clock pendulum 1656 Huygens Duch
cloned calves 1998 Kato et al. Japanese
cloned golden carp 1981 na Chinese
cloned 1st human embrio 1993 na na
cloned mice 1999 Wakayama et al. Jap-US
cloned sheep dolly 1997 Roslin Inst. English
coaxial cable 1929 Affel Espenshed US
COBOL language 1960 Hopper et al. US
cocaine 1860 Nierman German
coke use for iron smelting 1709 Darby English
color printing 1719 Le Blon French
combustion explained 1777 Lavoisier French
comet 1st parabolic orbit 1664 Borelli Italian
compact disk 1972 RCA US
compact disk player 1979 Sony Philips Jap- Duch
compressed air drill 1871 Ingersoll US
computer aut. sequence 1944 Aiken et al. US
computer data process. 1888 Hollerith US
computer mini 1960 Digital Co. US
Computer. Axial Tomography 1973 Hounsfield English
condenser microphone 1916 Wente US
conditioned reflexes 1914 Pavlov Russian
contact lens 1887 Frick US
contact lens plastic 1954 Bier na
contraceptive 1954 PincusRock US
controlled nuclear chain react. 1942 Fermi Italian
corals animal nature discov. 1711 Marsigli Italian
cortisone discovered 1936 Kendall US
cortisone synthetic prod. 1946 Sarett US
cosmic rays 1910 Gockel Swiss
cream separator 1878 DeLaval Swedish
cubic equations solving meth. 1535 Tartaglia Italian
cyanamide 1905 Frank& Caro German
cybernetics 1948 Wiener US
cyclotron 1930 Lawrence US
cystoscope 1878 Nitze German
daguerrotype 1839 Daguerre French
DDT, disc as insecticide 1939 Muller German
decimal system ~500 na Ind/Mesopot.
deductive system ~300BC Euclid Greece
deduct.reasoning < math.laws 1637 Descartes French
dental science explained 1728 Fauchard French
detergents 1907 Henkel& Co. German
deuterium 1932 Ureyet al. US
diesel engine 1895 Diesel German
differential gear 1885 Benz German
dirigible 1900 Zeppelin German
disease<>poor hygiene link 1854 Snow English
disk floppy 1970 IBM US
DNA < > genetic 1944 Avery Canadian-US
DNA structure 1951 Watson et al. US
DNA fingerprinting 1986 Jeffreys na
DNA marker musc.dystrophy 1983 Davies & Williamson na
DNA transmiss.: phage<>bact. 1952 Lederberg US
Doppler effect 1843 Doppler Austrian
Double star 1st observed 1650 Riccioli Italian
disk video 1972 Philips Co. Duch
dry-ice 1925 Benton US
dynamite 1866 Nobel Swedish
dynamo cont.curr. 1871 Gramme Belgian
dynamometer 1750 DeProny French
earth magnetic pole 1546 Mercator Flemish 
earth mass 1798 Cavendish French
earth position in Galaxy 1912 Shapley US
earthquakes scale 1935 Richter US
earth rotation demonstr. 1851 Foucault French
egg human fertilized in tube 1977 na English
electric battery 1800 Volta Italian
electric waves/radio waves 1888 Hertz German
electrocardiograph 1903 Einthoven Duch
electroencephalograph 1929 Berger German
electrolysis 1852 Faraday English
electromagnet 1824 Sturgeon English
electromagnetism 1819 Oersted Danish
electron 1897 Thomson English
electron spectrometer 1944 Deutsch et al. US
electron tube multigrid 1913 Langmuir US
electronic Comput. ENIAC 1946 Mauchly & Eckert US
electroplating 1805 Brugnatelli Italian
electroshock 1st treatment 1938 Cerletti & Bini Italian
electrostatic generator 1929 Van de Graaff US
elevator brake 1852 Otis US
elevator push button 1922 Larson US
embriology 1604 Fabricius Italian
engine compression ignition 1883 Daimler German
engine electric ignition 1883 Benz German
engine gas 1926 Eickemeyer US
engine gasoline 1872 Brayton US
engine jet 1930 Whittle English
engine steam pist.+cylinder 1705-12 Newcomen English
enzyme 1st isolat.-pepsin 1836 Schwann German
erytromycin 1952 McGuire US
evolution theory 1859 Darwin English
evolution human theory 1871 Darwin English
eyeglass 1285 DeSpina Italian
falling body law 1590  Galileo  Italian 
fan  electric 1882 Wheeler US
fax machine 1865 Caselli Italian
femal reproductive syst. descr. 1561 Fallopius Italian
fiber glass 1938 Owens-Corning US
fiber optics 1955 Kapany English
fire 12,000 na na
filament of tungsten 1913 Coolidge US
flush toilet 1589 Harington English
flying machine drawing 1492 Leonardo Italian
fossil 1st descr. 1517 Fracastoro Italian
FORTRAN language 1956 Backus IBM US
fractals theory developed 1975 Mandelbrot Polish
freon 1930 Midgleyet al. US
friction match 1831 Sauria na
frozen foods 1924 Birdseye US
furnace for steel 1858 Siemens German
galvanometer 1820  Sweigger  German 
gamma rays 1900 Villard French
gas-discharge tube 1922 Hull US
gas-lighting 1792 Murdoch Scottish
gasoline high octane 1930 Ipatieff Russian
gases theory 1738 Bernoulli Swiss
geiger counter 1913 Geiger German
gemstone synthetic 1902 Verneuil French
gene-altered bacteria 1986 Adv.Gen.Sci. US
gene cloning 1984 NIH et al. US/Fr./N.Z.
gene foreign introduced into human 1989 Rosenberg et al. US
gene synthesis ex-novo 1970 Khorana et al. Indian-US
genet. engin. 1st grown:tobacco 1986 na Wisconsin
genetics & species origin 1937 Dobzhansky Rus.-US
genetic experiment 1st 1907 Morgan US
genome of Drosofila acquired 2000 Adams et al. US
genome human acquired 2000 da US
geology foundations 1830 Lyell English
germ theory of diseases 1862 Pasteur French
glass objects earliest ~2 500 na
gravitation law 1687 Newton English
gun/cannon 1260 Anklitzen na
gun breach-loader 1811 Thornton US
gun machine 1861 Gatling US
gun silencer 1908 Maxim US
gyrocompass 1911 Sperry US
gyroscope 1852 Foucault French
Halley comet 1st described 1682 Halley  English 
heart artificial 1982 Jarvic US
heeled vehicles  ~3,500BC na Sumerian
heart valve artificial 1952 Hufnagel na
heart-lung machine 1953 Gibbon US
helicopter 1907/39 Breguet/Sikorsky French/US
helicopter 1939 Sikorsky US
heliocentric planetary model 1512 Copernicus Polish
hydrodynamics 1640 Torricelli Italian
hydrogen bomb 1952 Teller et al. US
HIV virus identif. 1984 Montagnier/Gallo French/US
holograph 1948 Gabor English
Hormone first synthesized 1954 Du Vigneaud US
hovercraft 1956 Cockerel English
Hubble space telescope > orbit 1990 NASA US
human heart transplant 1967 Barnard S.African
hybrid corn 1917 Jones US
hydraulic press 1795 Bramah English
hydeoelectric plant 1st 1882 [Wisconsin] US
hydrogen disc. 1766 Cavendish English
hydrometer 1768 Baume French
hydroplane 1911 Curtiss US
hydrogen bomb 1952 US gov. scientists US
hygrometer 1687 Amontons French
ice-making machine  1851  Gorrie US 
induction electric 1830 Henry US
infrared radiation discov. 1800 Herschel English
insecticide 1st developed ~100 na Chinese
insulin 1922 Bantinget al. Canadian
integrated circuit 1959 Kilby Texas Instr. US
integrated radio circuit 1966 [Sony] Japanese
interferometer 1881 Michelson Polish
IQ test 1905 Binet & Simon French
invertebrate classification 1801 Lamark French
in vitro fertization 1978 Steptoe & Edwards English
ion engine 1959 Forreste na
iron-lung 1928 DrinkerSlaw US
isoniazide 1952 HoffmanLaRoche US
isotopes theory 1912 Soddy English
IUD, intrauterine device 1909 Richter na
jet engine  1930 Whittle  English 
jet  aircraft  1939/41 Ohain German
jumbojet airliner 1969 Boeing 747 US
Jupiter fly-by 1st 1973 Pioneer 10 us
kaleidoscope  1817  Brewster  Scottish 
kinetoscope 1889 Edison US
lamp-arc  1847  Staite English 
lamp-fluorescent 1938 GEWesting. US
lamp-incandescent 1879 Edison US
lamp-mercury vapor 1912 Hewitt US
lamp-miner safety 1816 Davy English
lamp-neon 1909 Claude French
laser 1958 Townes& Schawlow US
laser argon ion 1960 Herriot et al. US
laser, eye 1st surgery 1964 Ingram na
laughing gas 1800 Davy English
launderette 1934 Cantrell US
lens achromatic 1758 Dollond English
lever principle ~250BC Archimedes M.Greece
lie detector 1921 Larsen Danish
life-lasting machine 1883 Matzelieger na
light-house ~280BC na Egiptian
light velocity determined 1675 Roemer Danish
light-waves theory 1690 Huygens Duch
lightning rod 1752 Franklin US
linoleum 1860 Walton English
linotype 1884 Mergenthaler US
liquid crystal display LCD 1971 Hoffmann-La Roche Lab. Swiss
lithography 1796 Senefelder na
lobotomy 1935 EgasMoniz Portuguese
lock cilinder 1851 Yale US
locomotive electric 1851 Vail US
locomotive steamed 1814>25 Stephenson English
logarithms 1614 Napier English
loud speaker dynamic 1924 Rice & Kellog US
LSD synthesis 1943 Hoffman Swiss
lymphatic system 1653 Rudbeck Swedish
magnet electro  1828  Henry US
magnifying glass 1250 Bacon English
malaria from Anopheles 1897 Ross English
margarine 1868 Mege-Mouries French
mars landing + probes 1976 Viking 1, NASA US
maser 1954 Gordonet al. US
mass conservation law 1789 Lavoisier French
mass-spectroscope 1918 Dempster US
mech. engineering details 1723 Leupold German
medicine foundation ~400BC Hyppocrates Greek
mendelian laws 1865 Mendel Austrian
mercerized textile 1843 Mercer English
Mercury fly-by 1974 Mariner 10 US
metabolism  1st studied 1614 Santorio Italian
methanol 1661 Boyle Irish
metronome 1816 Malezel German
minicomputer 1962 DigitalCorp. US
microcomputer 1982 na [IBM] US
micrometer 1636 Gascoigne English
microphone 1877 Berliner US
microprocessor 1971 IntelCorp. US
microscope optical 1590 Janssen Duch
microscope electronic 1931 Knoll & Ruska German
microsc. electron scanning 1970 Crewe na
microscope ion field 1951 Mueller German
microscope scann. tunneling 1980 Binning & Rohrer US
milk condensation 1853 Borden US
molecular hypothesis 1811 Avogadro Italian
monoplane 1911 Levasseur na
moon unmanned landing 1959 na Russia
moon landing manned 1969 NASA US
moon map 1st 1651 Riccioli Italian
motion laws 1687 Newton English
motion-picture camera 1896 Marey/Edison/Lumiere French/US
motor AC 1892 Tesla US
motor DC 1837 Davenport US
motor induction 1887 Tesla US
motorcycle 1885 Daimler German
mouse for computer 1968 Englehart US
movement of stars 1718 Halley English
movie-machine 1894 Jenkins US
movie-panoramic 1952 Walter US
movie-talking 1927 WarnerBros. US
mower-lawn 1831 Budding Ferrabee English
mowing machine 1822 Balley US
muon discovered 1937 Anderson US
neomycin  1949  Waksman&Lechevalier  US 
neoprene 1930 Carothers US
Neptune observed 1st time 1846 Galle German
Neptune fly-by 1st 1989 Voyager 2 US
neutrinos 1st observed 1955 Cowan & Reines na
neutron 1932 Chadwick English
neutron  bomb 1977 na US
nitroglycerine 1846 Sobrero Italian
noise-reduction system 1966 Dolby na
normal distribution curve 1733 De Moivre French
nuclear fission 1st,  uranium 1938 Hahn German
nuclear magn. res., NMR 1946 Mills & Purcell na
nuclear reactor  > electricity 1951 na [Idaho] US
nuclear-powered submarine 1954 na US
nucleic acids disc. 1879 Kossel German
nylon 1930 Carothers US
oil well 1st 1859  Drake  US 
oil cracking proc. 1891 Dewar US
oleomargarine 1869 Mege-Mouries French
ophtalmoscope 1851 Helmholz German
oscilloscope 1897 Braun German
out solar system < Pioneer10 1974 NASA US
ozone 1840 Shonbein German
oxigen discovery 1774 Priestley English
oxytetracycline 1950 Finlayet al. US
pantograph  1603  Scheiner  German 
paper 105 Ts'ai Lun Chinese
paper machine 1809 Dickinson US
paper sulfite proc. 1867 Tilghman US
parachute 1785 Blanchard French
particle accelerator 1st 1932 Cockcorft & Walton English
PASCAL language 1969 WITH na
pasteurization 1856 Pasteur French
pen-ballpoint 1938 Biro Hungarian
pen-fountain 1884 Waterman US
pen-steel 1780 Harrison English
pendulum 1583 Galilei Italian
penicillin 1929 Fleming Scottish
penicillin use 1941 Florey & Chain English
periodic table of elements 1869 Mendeleiev Russian
pheromones development 1965 Jones et al. na
phonograph 1877 Edison US
photo-color 1892 Ives US
photocopy machine 1938 Carlson US
photo-film celluloid 1893 Reichenbach US
photo-film transparent 1884 Eastman & Goodwin US
photoelectric cell 1895 Elster German
photografic exposure meter 1931 Rhamstine na
photographic paper 1835 Talbot English
photography 1835 Talbot/Daguerre Engl./Fr.
photophone 1880 Bell US
photosyntesis 1779 Ingenhousz Duch
photo-telegraphy 1925 BellLabs. US
physiology foundations 1628 Harvey English
piano 1709 Cristofori Italian
pion particle discov. 1947 Powel English
pistol revolver 1836 Colt US
planetary motion law 1609 Kepler German
plant classification 1735 Linnaeus Swedish
plexiglas 1936 Farben German
plow ~3,500BC na Sumerian
Pluto disc. 1930 Tombaugh US 
plutonium created in lab. 1941 Seaborg US
plutonium fission 1940 Kennedy et al. US
pneumatic hammer 1890 King US
polaroid land camera 1948 Land US
pollination experimental 1763 Kohlreuter German
polyethylene 1933 Gibson& Fawcett na
polymyxin 1947 Ainsworth English
polystyrene 1930 Farben German
porcelain ~700 na Chinese
positron 1932 Anderson US
positron emiss. tomogr.PET 1985 Phelps na
powder smokeless 1884 Vieille French
printing rotary press 1845 Hoe US
printing press 1454 na German
printing press web 1865 Bullok US
proton 1919 Rutherford N.Zealand
psychoanalysis 1900 Freud Austrian
pulsars 1967 Bell English
punch card 1889 Hollerith US
PVC [polyvinylchloride] 1928 CarbideCorp. US
pyramid Choeps ~2,500BC Imhotep Egitian
quantum theory  1900  Plank  German 
quantum mechanics 1926 Born German
quark 1963 Gell-Mann& Zweig US
quasars 1963 Schmidt Estonian
radar  1935  Watson-Watt  Scottish 
radioactivity 1896 Becquerel French
radio-amplifier 1906 DeForest US
radio beacon 1928 Donovan US
radio broadcast 1920 KDKA US
radio carbon dating 1947 Libby US
radio crystal oscillator 1918 Nicolson US
radio diode tube 1905 Fleming English
radio FM 1933 Armstrong US
radio magnetic detector 1902 Marconi Italian
radio map of universe 1st 1942 Reber US
radio receiver casc. tuning 1913 Alexanderson US
radio signals 1892 Marconi Italian
radio telephone 1900 Poulsen& Fessenden Danish
radio tube oscillator 1915 De Forest US
radio tube triode 1906  De Forest US
radium disc. 1898 Curie Pol.-French
rayon acetate 1895 Cross English
rayon cuprammonium 1890 Despeissis French
rayon nitrocellulose 1884 Chardonnet French
razor electric 1917 Schick US
razor safety 1895 Gillette US
reaping machine 1834 McCormic US
recombinant DNA techn. 1970 Smith & Nathans US
record cylinder 1887 Bell & Tainter US
record disc 1887 Berliner US
record long playing 1947 Goldmark US
record wax cyinder 1888 Edison US
red blood cells obs. 1st 1658 Swammerdam Duch
refrigerator car 1868 David US
relativity theory special 1905 Einstein German
relativity theory general 1915 Einstein German
relic radiation of bigbang 1992 Smoot US
reserpine 1949 JalVaiki Indian
resin synthetic 1931 Hill English
Richter scale 1935 Richter US
Rifle-long Pennsylvania 1710 Dutch US
rifle repeating 1860 Spencer US
rocket engine+liquid prop. 1926 Goddard US
rocket V2 long distance 1944 Von Braun German
rotation of sun 1613 Galileo Italian
rubber vulcanized 1839 Goodyear US
saccharin 1879  Remsen& Fahlberg  US 
Saturn fly-by 1st 1979 Pioneer 11 US
sawband 1808 Newberry English
saw circular 1777 Miller English
scientific society 1st 1560 Della Porta Italian
scientific method descr. 1620 Bacon English
screwdriver 1550 Gunsmiths na
seismology foundation 1880 Milne na
sextant 1757 Campbell English
sex. plant reproduct.discov. 1682 Grew English
sewing machine 1846 Howe US
shoe-sewing machne 1860 McCay US
shrapnel shell 1784 Shrapnel English
shuttle space <Columbia> earth 1977 NASA US
silicon-chip 1958 Kilby US
silk worm cultivation ~2700BC na Chinese
skeleton omologies/vertebrate 1555 Belon French
skin synthetic made 1st 1986 Gallico US
skyscraper 1882 Le Baron Jenny na
sleeping car 1865 Pullman US
slide ruler 1620 Oughtred English
smallpox eradication 1979 WHO UN
soap 1928 Bertsch German
soda (Na-carbonate) synthesis 1787 Leblanc French
sonar 1917 Langevin French
space flight manned 1961 Gagarin URSS
spectroscope 1859 Kirchoff& Bunsen German
sphygmomanometer 1881 VonBash Austrian
spontan. generation disproved 1668 Redi Italian
sputnik artif. satellite 1957 na URSS
star nomenclature 1603 Bayer German
steam boat 1807 Fulton US
steam car 1770 Cugnot French
steam-powered machine 1698 Savery English
steam turbine 1884 Parsons English
steel converter 1856 Bessemer English
steel alloy 1891 Harvey US
steel electric proc. 1900 Heroult French
steel stainless 1916 B rearley English
stereoscope 1838 Wheatstone English
stethoscope 1819 Laennec French
storage battery rechargeable 1859 Plante French
stove electric 1896 Hadaway US
streptomycin 1945 Schatz& Waksman US
submarine 1891 Holland US
submarine torpedo 1776 Bushnell US
sulfanilamide 1935 Bovet& Trefouel French
sun< >earth distance evaluation 1672 Cassini Ital.-Fr.
superconductivity 1911 Onnes Duch
supersonic 1st flight 1947 Yeager US
supernova 1st observed 1572 Brahe Danish
surgery manual first 1528 Paracelsus Swiss
tank military  1914  Swinton  English 
tape recorder 1899 Poulsen Danish
teflon 1938 Plunkett US
telegraph cable US < >Europe 1858 na na
telegraph magnetic 1837 Morse US
telegraph quadruplex 1864 Edison US
telegraph railroad 1887 Woods US
telegraph  wireless 1895 Marconi Italian
telephone 1876 Bell US
telephone automatic 1891 Stowger US
telephone radio long distance 1915 AT&T US
teliphone wireless 1899 Collins US
telescope 1608 Lippershey Netherland
telescope astronomical 1611 Kepler German
telescope, radio 1937 Reber US
telescope reflecting 1668 Newton English
teletype 1928 Morkrum US
television  1st signal 1925 Baird Scottish
television 1927 Farnsworth US
television color 1941 Goldmark US
television color regular broadcast 1954 NTSC US
thermodynamic 2nd law 1834 Clapeyrons French
thermodynamic 1st law 1847 Helmholtz German
thermoelectricity 1821 Seebeck German
thermometer 1593 Galilei Italian
thermometer medical 1616 Santorio Italian
termometer mercury 1714 Fahrenheit German
thermonuclear device 1st explosion 1952 Teller et al. Ung.-US
thermostat 1830 Ure French
time recorder 1890 Bundy US
time self regulator 1918 Bryce US
tire double-tube 1845 Thomson Scottish
tire pneumatic 1888 Dunlop Scottish
toaster automatic 1918 Strite US
topology founded 1895 Poincare French
tractor crawler 1904 Holt US
transformer AC 1885 Stanley US
transistor 1947 Shockleyet al. US
trascendental number ‘e’ 1873 Bell US
trascendental number ‘p 1882 Lindemann German
trigonometry ~140BC Hypparcus Greece
trolley car electric 1887 Sprague US
tuberculin 1890 Koch German
tupperware 1945 Tupper US
turbine gas 1849 Bourdin French
turbine hydraulic 1849 Francis US
turbine steam 1884 Parsons English
turbojet engine 1937-40 Whittle et al. English
typewriter 1867 Sholes et al. US
typewriter electric 1901 Cahill US
typhoid fever 1st  described 1659 Willis English
UltraViolet radiation 1801  Ritter  German 
uncertainty principle 1927 Heisenberg German
universal milling machine 1862 Brown US
uranium fission 1939 Fermi Italian
Uranus  discovered 1781 Herschel German
Uranus fly-by 1st 1986 Voyager 2 US
vaccination > smallpox 1717  Montagu English 
vaccine  artificial 1st 1881 Pasteur French
vaccine  > diphteria 1890 Behring German
vaccine > measles 1954 Enders & Peebles US
vaccine >meningitis 1987 Gordon et al. US
vaccine >polio 1952 Salk US
vaccine >polio oral 1957 Sabin US
vaccine >rabies 1885 Pasteur French
vaccine >smallpox diff.>Europe 1796 Jenner English
vaccine >tetanus 1890 Behring German
vaccine >typhus 1909 Nicolle French
vaccine >varicella 1974 Takahashi Japaneese
vacuum pump 1645 von Guericke German
Van Allen radiation belt 1958 Van Allen US
velcro 1948 deMestral Swiss
video disk 1972 Philips Co. Duch
video game 1972 Buschnel US
video Home System VHS 1975 Matsushita JVC Japanese
virus, 1st animal: FMDV  1898 Loffler & Frosch German
virus, 1st found : tobacco virus 1898 Beijerinck Duch
vitamin A 1913 McCollun & Davies US
vitamin B 1916 McCollun US
vitamin C 1928 SzentGyorgyi & King US
vitamin C synthesized 1934 Haworth English
vitamin D 1922 McCollun US
vulcanization 1839 Goodyear US
walk 1st on the moon  1969 Armstrong  US 
wasserman test 1906 Wasserman German
watch pocket 1502 Heinlein German
welding atomic hydrogen 1924 Palmer US
welding electric 1877 Thomson US
wheeled vehicle ~3,500BC na Sumerian
wind tunnel 1932 Ford Motor Co. US
water synthesis 1781 Priestley English
wave mechanics 1926 Schrodinger German
weather satellite 1960 NASA US
wind tunnel 1012 Eiffel French
wire 1410 Rodolph German
wire barbed 1874 Haisn US
wrench double-acting 1913 Owen US
writing system ~3,500BC na Sumerian
X-ray 1895  Roentgen  German 
X-ray 1st diagnostic use 1896 Pupin US
X-ray tube 1913 Coolidge US
xerography 1938 Carlson US
zero  ~500 na  Indian
zipper 1891 Judson US
                   na = not available