vency's site

STAGES  of  MEDICINE
                                                               >>>>    draft
~ 200 A.D. - Galen identifies the BRAIN as the organ of mind
         1798 - Smallpox Vaccine, E. Jenner
       1844 - anesthesiology while extracting tooth, H. Wells
               - use of ether in childbirth, C. Long
                 - Corynebacterium difteriae discovery
         1845 - introduction of modern anesthesiology [sulfuric ether],W.T.G.
                    Morton
         1847 - nitroglycerin proved useful in relieving symptoms of angina
                 - chloroform introduced into obstetric practice, J.Y. Simpson
1848 - puerperal fever reduced by hygienic practices [hands wash with
          chlorinated water]
        - epidemiology become a science, J. Simon
1849 - 1st US woman MD graduate physician, E. Blackwell
1850 - 1st text of Histology, R.A. von Kolliker
        - invented ophthalmoscope, H.L.F. Helholtz
1854 - F. Nightingale & A. Parkes  pioneer hygienic measures in
          Crimean war Hospital
        - patented kaolin process for false teeth, M. Loomis
1855 - 'Principles of Psychology', H. Spencer
        - pernicious anemia recognized, T. Addison
1856 - schistosomiasis r.a.c.* by worm parasite, T. Bilharz
1857 - epidemic tuberculosis in US cities: 400 deaths per 100,000
           population
1858 - 'Anatomy of the Human Body, Descriptive and surgical',
           H. Gray
        - founded E.R. Squibb & Sons pharmaceutical Lab.
        - 'Experimental Psychology', W.Wunt
1859 - colchicine envisaged to cure gout, A. B. Garrod
        - cocaine isolated from coca leaves
1860 - diabetes r.a.c. by pancreas disorder, E. Lancereaux
1861 - Hospital Medical College established NY for orthopedic surgery
        - GERM THEORY of DISEASES exposed by L. Pasteur in the
           paper 'Memoires sur les corpuscules organises qui existent
           dans l'atmosphere'
1863 - International Red Cross Principles established in Geneva
1864 - barbituric acid synthesized by A. von Bayer
1865 - inaugurated antiseptic surgery by the use of carbolic acid,
           J. Lister
1866 - clinical thermometer invented, T.C. Allbut
1867 - 1st colecystectomy [gallstone operation], J.S. Bobbs
        - amyl nitrate found useful in treating angina pectoris,T.L. Brunton
        - atropine effects on hearth found
1869 - discovery of insulin & glucagon produced by pancreas,
           P. Langerans
1870 - Cough drops patented, Smith Brothers
1873 - contagious nature of typhoid fever proved, W. Budd
1874 - leprosy bacillus [>hansen disease] discovered, A. G. Henrik
        - boric acid introduced to cure eye infections, S. Theobald
1875 - electric dental drill/tool patented, G.F. Green
        - vaseline introduced, Chesebrough Manuf. Co.
1876 - Eli Lilly Co. founded
        - 1st pure culture of anthrax Bacillus, R. Koch
1877 - technique for staining bacteria & theory of
         bacteria causing diseases, proved, R. Koch
        - Germicidal activity of Ultraviolet Rays discovered, A. Downes &
           T.P. Blunt
        - cystoscope invented, M. Nitze
        - Paget's disease described, J. Paget
1878 - 1st Laboratory for Experimental Psychology opened,
           W.M. Wundt
        - yellow fever epidemic [US Gulf Coast & Tennessee] killing
           ~20,000
        - smallpox epidemic in Dakota territory
1879 - the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhea discovered, A.L. Siegmund
        - conditioned reflexes discovered, I.P. Pavlov
        - exact dosage of pharmaceutical drugs established, Parke Davis
           Co.
1880 - malaria r.a.c. by a blood parasite, C.L.A. Laveran
        - typhoid bacillus discovered, R. Koch & K.J. Eberth
        - vaccine against anthrax, R. Koch
1881 - serum against cholera discovered, J. Ferran
        - mosquitoes suspected to spread yellow fever, C.J. Finlay
        - Pneumococcus pneumoniae bacterium identified, G.M. Sternberg
        - Plasmodium malariae identified, G.M. Sternberg
1882 - Tuberculosis bacillus discovered, R. Koch
        - hypnosis proved to be useful in treating hysteria, J. Breuer
1883 - the diphtheria bacillus described, E. Klebs
        - cholera bacillus identified, R. Koch
        - pandemic cholera begins & will kill millions in 11 years
1884 - Bacillus diphtheria isolated/cultured, F.A.J. Loffler
        - silver nitrate prevent blindness from gonorrheal infection,
          K.S.F. Crede
        - open-air treatment of tuberculosis, E.L. Trudeau
        - local anesthesia pioneered by cocaine injection, W.S. Halsted
        - cocaine as local anesthetic in eye surgery, C. Killer
        - brain tumor removed by surgery, R. J. Godlee
1885 - anti-rabies vaccine 1st administration, L. Pasteur
        - successful appendectomy performed in US, W.W. Grant
        - phagocytosis of microorganisms by leukocytes discovered,
           I.I. Mechnikov
        - Johnson & Johnson founded/producing pharmaceutical
           plasters/rubber based
      - 1st rabies vaccine
1886 - sterile dressing in individual package developed,
           Johnson & Johnson
1887 - the bacterial agent of Malta fever [brucellosis] identified,
           D. Bruce
1888 - the Institut Pasteur founded in Paris
1889 - tetanus bacillus discovered, S. Kitazato
        - the very potent diphtheria toxin discovered, E. Roux &
           A.E.J. Yersin
        - Mayo Clinic/St. Mary's Hospital opened
        - pandemic influenza affect ~ 50%  world population
1890 - tetanus anti-toxin produced, E. von Behring & S. Kitazato
        - diphtheria antitoxin produced, E. von Behring
        - prophylactic use of silver nitrate by dropping newborn eyes,
           NY Law
1891 - improvement of diphtheria antitoxin, E.von Behring & E. Ehrlich
1892 - discovery of viruses, D. I. Ivanovski
1893 - Open Heart surgery 1st, D.H. Williams
        - basal metabolism test devised, A.M.Levy
1894 - the bacillus causing bubonic plague discovered, A.E.J. Yersin
           & S. Kitazato
1895 - X-rays discovery improve diagnostic medicine, W.C. Roentgen
1897 - the parasite of malaria transmission by Anopheles, R. Ross
      - 1st plague vaccine
1898 - heroin introduced as cough suppressant,F. Bayer Co.
        - bubonic plague [1898<>1910] begins to kill ~ 3 million peoples in
           India and China
1899 - cholera pandemic begins [1899<>1923]
        - aspirin[acetylsalicylic ac.] recognized as painkiller and fever
            reducer, F. Hoffman & H. Dreser
1900 - Aedes aegypti recognized to transmit virus of yellow fever,
            W. Reed & C.J. Finley
        - bubonic plague strikes Honolulu
        - bubonic plague at San Francisco [~ 120 deaths]
        - 'The interpretation of dreams' by S. Freud
1901 - adrenaline isolated from adrenal gland [heart stimulant /
            bronchi relaxant], J. Takamine
1902 - Argyrol [silver gelatin] developed for protecting newborn eyes,
            A.C. Barnes & H. Hille
        - W.S. Sutton hypothesizes chromosomes as carriers of
            inheritance characters
1903 - X-rays therapy against cancer, G.C. Perthes
        - typhoid fever outbreak recognized as spreaded by a healthy
            carrier
1905 - novocaine introduced as local anesthetic, H.F.W. Braun
        - large poliomyelitis epidemic
        - mosquitoes killing campaign ends yellow fever in New Orleans
        - Female found have 2 XX chromosomes, male XY
1906 - blood test for syphilis, A. Wasserman
        - microorganism causing Rocky Mountains fever discovered,
            H.T. Ricketts
1907 - bubonic plague killed 1.3 million in India
1909 - arsenic based antibacterial Salvarsan effective against syphilis,
           P. Ehrlich
        - discovery of blood groups make transfusions safe,
           K. Landsteiner
        - poliomyelitis virus isolated, K. Landsteiner
1910 - 1st diagnosis of sickle cell anemia, J. B. Herrick
        - Bacterium tularensis recognized causing tularemia disease,
           G.W. McCoy & C.W. Chapin
        - bubonic plague begins killing up to ~1.5 million in China & India
           over next 9 years
1912 - thrombosis recognized, J.B. Herrick
1913 - foundation of American Cancer Society
        - Lambarene Hospital founded in Equatorial Africa, A. Schweitzer
1915 - typhus epidemia killed ~ 150,000 in Serbia
        - thyroid hormone thyroxin isolated, E.C. Kendall
        - disposable scalpel patented, M. Parker
1916 - anticoagulant power of heparin discovered accidentally
        - poliomyelitis epidemic strikes ~ 30,000 in US
1917 - typhus epidemic begins in Russia, killing ~ 3 million in 4 years
1918 - Spanish influenza pandemic [Europe, America, Asia] killed ~ 21
            million peoples [1% population]
        - diffusion of wearing mask practice to avoid influenza contagion
        - ergotamine drug extracted from Claviceps purpurea and used in
            muscle/blood therapy
1921 - Rorschach test based on inkblots introduced in psycho diagnosis
        - ban-aid adhesive introduced by Johnson & Johnson
1922 - Death rate in USA down from 1900, deaths/100,000 people:
                        diphtheria: from 43.3 to 14.6
                        influenza and pneumonia, from 181.5 to 88.3
                        infant diarrhea enteritis, from 108.8 to 32.5
                        tuberculosis, from 201.9 to 97
                        typhoid & paratyphoid, from 35.9 to 7.5
         [J. Trager, 'The People Chronology', H. Holt & Co., NY, 1994]
        - diabetes treatment with insulin begins
     - penicillin discovery, A. Fleming
1923 - development of tetanus toxoid, G. Ramon
        - 1st diphtheria vaccine
1924 - the scarlet fever agent Streptococcus isolated, G.F. Dick
1925- cholera epidemic in Russia
        - incurable Cooley's anemia recognized as hereditary diseases
1926 - X-rays induce genetic mutations, H.J. Muller
        - Enzymes are recognized to be proteins, J.B. Sumner
        - Pace-maker first implant
        - Russian outbreak of ergot
      - 1st pertussis vaccine
1927 - iron lung invented by P. Drinker
      - 1st tuberculosis vaccine [BCG]
        - 1st tetanus vaccine
1928 - antibacterial properties of Penicillin discovered
        - Liver extract introduced to treat pernicious anemia
1929 - 1st use of electroshock to treat schizophrenia, M. Sakel
        - insulin shock found effective in treating schizophrenia
1932 - introduction of benzedrine inhaler
1933 - 1st isolation of influenza virus
        - yellow fever vaccine [attenuated virus] developed
1935 - antibacterial activity of several sulfonamides discovered
        - breeding/selected Claviceps purpurea produced 10 times
            ergotamine
        - wearing electronic hearing aid invented, A.E. Stevens
1936 - 1st anti convulsive drug for treatment of epilepsy
        - 1st purified DNA isolation, , A.N. Belozersky
      - hypovarism uterine hipoplasy treatment with estrogens
        - testicular hypoplasy treatment with testosterone
        - gigantism, infantilism, eunucoidism, achromegaly treatment with
            hypophisary extracts
1937 - discovery of RNA, F.C. Bawden
        - leprosy therapeutic use of sulphones, thiosemicarbazone,
            sulphopyrazine
       - beriberi treatment with Vit. B1 & B12
        - pellagra treatment with Vit PP
1938 - myxedema treatment with thyroid extracts, iodine
        - cretinism treatment with thyroid extracts, iodine
1940 - discovery of Rh factor, A.S. Wiener & K. Landsteiner
        - antimicrobial sulfanilamide developed, R.O. Roblin
        - Basedow disease treatment with antithyroid compounds
        - PENICILLIN chemotherapy developed for Pneumonia,
            Bronchitis, Infectious bacterial meningitis, Impetigo, Diphtheria
            [penicillin, tetracycline], osteytis - other antibiotic [chemo-
            therapeutic treatments]: Q fever [terramycin], blenoragy
            [penicillin and tetracycline], syphilis [penicillin, tetracycline],
            bilharziose [terramycin, stovarsol], frambesia [aureomycin]
        - serum gamma globulin used for mass immunization against
            different diseases
        - fibrin used to stop hemorrhages
1942 - meningitis cured with penicillin
1943 - 1st dialysis machine, W. Kolff
        - dialysis machine used for kidney disease, W.J. Kolff
        - penicillin applied to treatment of chronic diseases
        - Streptomycin produced from Streptomyces, S.A. Waksman
        - PAP test developed for detecting cervical cancer,G.N.
            Papanicolaou
        - discovery of LSD hallucinogen, A. Hofmann
1944 - quinine synthesized, R.B. Woodward
        - typhus epidemic in Naples stopped by spraying DDT killing lice
            carrying Salmonella
1945 - correlation between lung cancer and cigarettes smoking observed
1946 - penicillin obtained by synthesis, V. du Vigneaud
1947 - World Health Organization established by ONU
        - cortisone synthesized , P.S. Hench & E.C. Kendall
        - aureomycin and chloromycin developed
        - hydrosadenite treated with streptomycin
        - typhus treated with tetracycline
        - Tuberculosis treated with streptomycin
        - Malta fever treated with tetracycline & chloramphenicol
        - Leptospyrose treated with tetracycline
        - tularemia treated with streptomycin
1948 - tonsillitis cured with aureomycin
        - faringitis cured with aureomycin
        - pernicious anemia cured with Vit. B12
1949 - sinusitis cured with terramycin
        - ACTH hormone synthesized
        - development of oxytetracycline antibiotic
        - introduction of chloramphenicol antibiotic
        - adenites treated with chloramphenicol
        - colangites treated with chloramphenicol
        - development of neomycin antibiotic, S. Waksman
1950 - tranquilizer meprobamate developed
        - sleeping sickness cured with pentamydin and with suramine
        - pityriasis treated with nistatin
        - antiblastic compounds used against cancer
        - leukemia treated with anablastics and corticosteroids
        - asthma relieved by cortisone, corticosteroids
        - allergic syndromes relieved by cortisone, corticosteroids
        - poliomyelitis vaccine [killed virus] developed by Salk
1951 - outbreak of ergotism in France affected ~300 people; 4 deaths
1952 - poliomyelitis epidemic in US affects ~ 50,000 peoples, ~ 3,000
            dies
        - reserpine isolate from Rauwolfia reduce high blood pressure
        - isoniazide was introduced to cure tuberculosis
        - development of chlorpromazine
1953 - DNA structure discovered, J. Watson & F. Crick
        - cryosurgery pioneered by H. Swann
1954 - hormone oxytocin synthesized, V. Du Vigneaud
        - chlorpromazine successfully used in treating psychotic patients
        - Humans have 46 chromosomes, J.H. Tjio & A. Levan
        - uterine contractions obtained by oxytocin application
        - 1st successful kidney transplant at P. B. Brigham H., Harvard
1955 - injectable anti-polio Vaccine come into use,
        J. Salk
        - thrombosis treated with anticoagulants, antiaggregants
        - urycemic syndrome cured with allopurinol
        - arthritis cured with prednisolone, a compound of the cortisone
            family
1957 - rifampycin antibiotic used successfully against tuberculosis
1960 - anti-anxiety drug Librium approved by FDA
        - begins WHO treatment with DDT against mosquitoes in
            Indonesia [~120,000 deaths/year by malaria]; target reached
            after 4 years
1962 - 1st Laser use for eye surgery
        - nephritis cured with rifampycin
        - urethritis successfully treated with nitrofurans, rifampycin
1963 - M.E De Bakey uses artificial heart during heart surgery
        - Valium come into commerce
1964 - Methadone employed to treat heroin addicts
1965 - oral poliomyelitis vaccine by Sabin
        - dislipidic syndrome treated with chlofibrates
        - measles vaccine developed
1966 - rubella vaccine developed
1967 - 1st use of mammography to check breast cancer
        - 1st successful heart transplant, C.N. Barnard
        - 1st coronary bypass surgery, R. Favaloro
        - L-dopa therapy of Parkinson's disease applied successfully
        - mumps vaccine
1968 - A. Denton Cooley perform 5 heart transplants within 5 weeks
1969 - 1st isolation of gene, J. Beckwith
1970 - annexitis, prostatitis, endocarditis, pericarditis, rheumatoid
            arthritis, periostitis successfully treated with synthetic penicillins
1971 - cystitis cured with cychlosporins antibiotics
        - salmonelloses cured with cychlosporins, amoxicillins antibiotics
1972 - arterial hypertension treated with beta blockers and diuretics
        - osteomyelitis treated with clindomycin, lincomycin antibiotics
        - toxoplasmosis treated with clindomycin, spiramycin antibiotics
        - diagnosis improved by development of Computerized Axial
            Tomography [CAT]
1973 - Magnetic Resonance Imaging [MRI] developed by
            R.V. Damadian
1975 - Monoclonal antibodies obtained artificially
        - Lyme disease recognized
1976 - Legionnaire disease r.a.c. by Legionella bacterium
        - WHO declared Asia free from smallpox
        - Inderal beta-blocker approved for high blood pressure treatment
1977 - invention of angioplasty, A.R. Gruentzig
        - Tagamet, a drug for treatment of ulcers was introduced into
            commerce
        - the last case of smallpox occurs in Somalia
1978 - 1st human egg fertilized successfully outside the body, UK
        - 1st human insulin produced from bio-engineered bacterium
1980 - rabies vaccine produced from human cell laboratory culture
1981 - a golden carp cloned by chinese scientists
      - hepatitis  B vaccine
1982 - 1st transplant of artificial heart, W. De Vries
1983 - 1st artificial chromosome developed
        - Ibuprofen anti-inflammatory acquires status of non-prescription
           drug
1984 - DNA fingerprint method developed, A. Jeffreys
        - sheep Dolly successfully cloned
        - genes cloned from an extinct species
1986 - 1st engineered vaccine [against hepatitis B] approved
1987 - AZT approved for treatment of AIDS
        - Lovastatin approved for lowering cholesterol
1988 - patent of mouse developed by genetic engineering
1991 - the DDI anti-AIDS drug approved
1993 - gastritis and ulcers r.a.c.  by Helicobacter pilori and cured by
            antibiotics



* r.a.c. = Recognized as caused by
 

penicillins are effective against: osteomyelitis, bronchitis, empyema, endocarditis, furuncles, laryngothracheitis, mastitis, otitis, peritonitis, tonsillitis, wounds, rheumatic fever, hemolytic streptococci, pneumococci, gonococci, meningococci, gas-gangrene clostridia, diphtheria, anthrax, syphilis.

streptomycin, effective against: tuberculosis, meningitis, endocarditis, laryngothracheitis, urinary infections [by E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, A. aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa], pulmonary infections, bacteremia, meningitis tularemia, peritonitis, liver/bile duct abscesses, empyema, chronic lung infections, pneumonia by Klebsiella.

Tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, active against: typhoid fever, gonorrhea, syphilis, brucellosis, psittacosis, lymphogranuloma, and many penicillins-sensitive diseases.
 
 

  SOME EPIDEMIC OF THE PAST

   ~ 160  -  Europe/Asia < measles / smallpox
   ~ 540  -  bubonic plague, from Mediteranean to China
    1331  -  bubonic plague, from China to Asia to Europe
    1494  -  Global epidemic of syphilis
    1556  -  influenza in Europe & Americas
    1648  -  Yellow fever throughout Americas
    1817  -  colera from Bengala to all over the world
    1847  -  London has an influenza epidemic that will take 15,000 lives
                 in 2 years
    1857  -  US tuberculosis kills 400 people per 100,000 population
    1863  -  scarlet fever epidemic in England takes more than 30,000
                 lives
            -   a 12 years worldwide cholera epidemic begins
    1865 -  cholera in Paris, 200 daily deaths [Camille, infant daughter of
                L. Pasteur, dies]
    1866 -  cholera epidemic takes 120,000 lives in Prussia and 110,000
                in Austria, some 50,000 Americans, 2,000 in NY
            -  cholera, scarlet fever, smallpox, typhoid fever, typhus,
                yellow fever, for 7 years, in NY, Baltimore, Boston,
                Philadelphia, Washington, etc.
    1875 -  Fiji Islands lose 40,000 of their 150,000 inhabitants in a
                measles epidemic
    1918  -  influenza all over the world